Millennial Physics
Chapter 3: Rates of Chemical Reaction
 
RATES OF CHEMICAL REACTION
 
One of my chemistry professors, during my class’s final lecture, presented some modern issues and conundrums of chemistry. He explained that some calculations demonstrated that typical molecules in the atmosphere and at sea level, appeared in some experiments to be moving at about 1500 feet per second (about 500 meters per second, or 900 miles per hour). He seemed to think that was not reasonable, considering what damage particles traveling at that speed can do to other materials, yet many very delicate objects are not damaged by moving air.
 
Consider my model of the polar atom influenced by Earth’s gravity. Pretend there is a polar atom, stationary in space above the Earth’s atmosphere. It is in space, with no other particles around it, only the Earth below. A line segment connects the atom to the Earth’s center of gravity, and as the center continuously moves, the line segment also moves to maintain the connection. Please ignore the changes in distance between the two, and focus on the rotational shift of the line as the Earth’s gravitational center moves within its event horizon. As the center moves relative-left, the line segment rotates left from the stationary atom. As it then moves right, the line segment follows it continuously. It can be shown that each atom has both a physical shape and field shape. As the line connecting the model’s atom to the gravitational center of the Earth, it can be shown that the atom’s nucleus will rotate as well in response. Now add a second atom to the model, near the first in space.
 
Try this. Place your hand on a nearby surface, palm-down, fingers stretched. Without repositioning your wrist, rotate your hand back and forth. Your fingers will sweep through an arc, centered at the wrist, and along the surface of the table. Then place your other hand onto the surface nearby, and rotate both hands in unison – both go clockwise and then counter-clockwise at the same time. This is to simulate the two atoms in space. Both atoms are rotating to follow the same Earth’s center of gravity, spinning first one way, and then the other, but during any Significant Moment, they are spinning the same way. Now, slowly bring your rotating hands closer to each other, until the tips of the fingers begin to touch. This is to simulate the collision of the two atoms. Notice that, the collision of your fingertips is not related so much by how quickly you move the hands together, but by how rapidly you are rotating the hands. Since any two atoms positioned next to each other will always be rotating in unison, their collision vector assures them to collide with surfaces spinning against each other.
 
For any two atoms in collision in a planet’s gravity, the velocity of linear collision is minimal when compared to the angular velocity of the particles as they follow the planet’s center of gravity. Therefore, at STP (Standard Temperature, and Pressure), the primary transfer of kinetic energy in atomic collisions is rotational.
 
In chemistry, we know that by increasing the speed of the molecules’ motion by heating, the rate at which they chemically react will normally increase. A piece of sodium at a temperature near absolute zero will not chemically react as rapidly as when the same sodium is at 900 degrees Celsius. We also know that the scale of this “rate of reaction” for an element over any range of temperature is fixed. By measuring its reactivity at a set of temperatures, the rate at any intermediate temperature can be determined. I conclude this motion includes a rotational factor, and that for some conditions, this rotational component of motion exceeds the linear velocity. As the location of an atom is set closer to a planet’s gravitational event horizon, for the set of Significant Moments that define the frequency range controlling chemical reactions, rotational velocity becomes more dominant.
 
A long time ago I had determined that rates of reaction would be different on other planets, in relation to the rotation of the atoms. The gravitational event horizon for a smaller planet would be a smaller sphere, and the change of vector would be proportionally smaller; the number of particle of the planet would also be fewer in number. Total planetary density and mass distribution also varies. Since each chemical is affected differently by gravity, discovering the difference of chemical reaction rate for one element would not hold for any others. Humans recently sent a probe to Mercury that included a chemical rates-of-reaction module; it found precisely that the rates of reaction on Mercury are different than on Earth. I had wondered if the closeness to the Sun and its widely shifting center of gravity would affect the rates, and it appears that the balloon model stands for Significant Moments relating to chemical reactions.
 
Recall the two atoms in space above the Earth. They each rotate to track the same center of gravity. If one atom is larger, then its surface is moving faster during the same rotational moment. This will also affect rates of chemical reaction. One atom’s electronic (chemical) harmonics at collision may match or be dissonant to another element. Some chemicals prefer chemical bonds with selected others, and some types of bonds are stronger than others. Hydrogen and chlorine creates a strong bond, but fluorine and hydrogen bond more strongly because their rotational harmonics are better in Earth’s gravity well.
 
Move the two atoms in space closer to the Earth. As they relocate inward, the Earth’s instantaneous center of gravity’s movement requires the atoms’ following rotational arc to increase. More rotation provides for a stronger collision. As chemicals move closer to the Earth’s center, they become more physically active. The material at the Earth’s core is constantly jostled and crushed at the harmonics that control its chemistry.
 
The impact of this study relates directly to space travel. If a chemical rocket is to operate within Saturn’s gravitational fields, then to get precise thrust, the reaction rates for Saturn must be discovered. If we are to survive on Mars, then our human catalytic metabolism must be adjusted on a known curve before we go. I speculate that bone density loss in Earth orbit may be slowed by finding out how the human metabolism is affected by any changes in the rates of reaction that far from the Earth. When we send a ship to another Sun, the chemical reaction rates must be charted, or the propulsion may fail to start or explode. In a different solar system, carbon may prove to be too agitated to sustain life forms, but silicon may be able to dampen the local sun’s activity enough to allow metabolism. A creature coming from that solar system to our may require exaggerated amounts of metabolic stimulants to exist, while if we were to travel to that solar system, we would need to have our metabolism buffered to prevent us from igniting.
 
Today I listened to the king of a prominent country, discussing the troubled condition of his society’s religious structures. He stated that in recent decades, his culture’s most competent students have been channeled toward technical and political studies, leaving the religious studies to be developed by those in the society who were less qualified, with less funding and shrinking social support. The result has been that the spiritual values of his country are now diminished and are not keeping up with the social results of technical progress. The king lamented that technology has been creating social complexities too quickly for these religious leaders to resolve. Also, these lesser religious scholars had made judgmental errors, and since the more creative and thoughtful scholars were not qualified to respond, these errors were accepted into his culture, and the results had too often led to problems and strife. Outsiders had used this weakness to press their views and values onto the culture, and it had suffered from their oppression.
 
Hey, this is Significant Moment Year 2005, and here is a sovereign leader explaining a current cultural issue that initially sounds more typical of centuries ago. He is describing an entire society that is being misled and diminished through lack of spiritual leadership. He voiced to me the often-stated concept that a society without social conscience will not be saved by technology, and that technology may even hasten its downfall.
 
His partial solution was stated to provide greater prominence and support for religious activities in his culture. Consider how much time you spend on spiritual management. Remember how little effort you have taken to understand philosophy, morality, and social responsibility.
 
My viewpoint is, the more intelligent are you, the greater must be your efforts in the study of God. If not, while your head is focused high in clouds of the future, the worshippers of evil will sneak up and drag you down by the ass, taking you and all you hold valuable into the abyss. It happens to someone every day.
 
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